Difference Between ATP And ADP




Difference Between ATP And ADP. In this article, you will get to know about what is ATP, what is ADP, what is the main difference between ATP and ADP, and a comparison between ADP and ATP.

We eat various kinds of foods. These foods are rich in nutrients and are full of energy. This energy is consumed by the body with the help of various metabolic reactions. If a cell wants to consume energy, it is done by ATP. The ATP is used for all the reactions that take place during anabolism and catabolism.

Difference Between ATP And ADP:

The main difference between ATP and ADP is that ATP contains three molecules of phosphate and ADP contains two molecules of phosphate. Both serve their respective functions in the body. ADP can be converted into ATP. ADP and pyrophosphate molecule is formed by the breakdown of ATP. The ADP and Pyrophoshate molecules are activators and inhibitors of some enzymes. They provide energy and participate in many important chemical reactions taking place in the body.

What Is ATP?

Difference Between ATP And ADP-what is atp

The full form of ATP is ‘Adenosine triphosphate’. It is the energy currency of the cell and carries out many important processes of the body like the transmission of nerve impulse, muscle contraction, and synthesis of biomolecules. Our body uses it as a coenzyme, as an intracellular energy transfer in cells for metabolism. It is the main energy molecule in living organisms. With the help of photophosphorylation, aerobic respiration, and fermentation in biological systems, ATP is generated. It facilitates the deposition of the phosphate group to the ADP molecule. It also acts as an inhibitor and activator for some enzymes.

The structure of the ATP consists of adenosine. It is an adenine ring and a ribose sugar, along with three phosphate groups called triphosphate. The biosynthesis of ADP as a result of,


Glucose + 2NAD+ + 2 Pi + 2 ADP = 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H2O


Glucose = 2CH3CH(OH)COOH + 2 ATP

What Is ADP?

Difference Between ATP And ADP-what is adp

ADP means ‘Adenosine Di Phosphate’. ADP has two phosphate groups. It is an organic compound found in our body. It plays an important role in the flow of energy of the cell. ADP is formed as a result of the de-phosphorylation of ATP molecules by ATPases enzymes. ATP results in the formation of the phosphate group that releases energy to metabolic reactions. ADP can be further broken down into AMP. ATP can also be produced by the ADP by the addition of a phosphate group. The energy of this molecule can be used whenever it is needed, as it is potential energy. This energy is used to carry out many chemical reactions in the body.

The structure of ADP comprises of the following components:
-A sugar molecule that is attached to the adenine base.
-The two phosphate groups are also bonded to the ribose sugar at Carbon-5.
-Adenosine is connected with the first carbon of the sugar. ADP is also called adenosine 5′-diphosphate.

Main Difference Between ATP And ADP:

-ATP contains three phosphate groups. ADP contains two phosphate groups.
-They can be converted into each other by the addition or removal of the phosphate groups.
-ATP is the main source of energy for the cells. ADP is only needed for cellular processes.

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