Difference Between Autosome And Sex Chromosome. In this article, you will get to know about what is an autosome, what is chromosome, what is the main difference between autosome and sex chromosome, similarities between autosome and sex chromosome, and comparison between autosome vs sex chromosome.
Although both the chromosomes contain DNA and protein and are responsible for an inheritance, however, there is quite different from each other. Let us differentiate between them.
What Is The Main Difference Between Autosome And Sex Chromosome?
The main difference between autosome and sex chromosome is that:
-Autosome is a chromosome that determines the somatic characteristics. It is not a sex chromosome. There are 22 pairs of these chromosomes in human beings.
-Sex chromosome determines the sex and sex-related characteristics of the organisms. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in a human. 22 of them are autosomes and 1 of them is a sex chromosome.
What Is Autosome?
An autosome is a chromosome that determines the somatic characteristics of the organism. It is not a sex chromosome. There are 22 pairs of these chromosomes in human beings. Each and every autosome have a large number of genes arranged together in a definite sequence. These homologous pairs consist of two chromosomes of the same length and the position of the centromere is the same.
During mitosis, each chromosome is duplicated by giving one copy of each chromosome to the daughter cells. This ensures that all copies of somatic cells in the body carry identical genes. The function of the autosome is to store thousands of genes and each is responsible for various types of functions.
What Is Sex Chromosome?
The sex chromosome determines the sex and sex-related characteristics of the organisms. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in a human. 22 of them are autosomes and 1 of them is a sex chromosome. It is a chromosome that determines the sex of an organism.
The sex chromosomes are of two types; X and Y and Y are smaller. These both are partially homologous. However, they pair up in daughter cells during meiosis. Male has both X and Y chromosomes, whereas female gametes have only X chromosomes. If an ovum unites with the sperm carrying X, the result is XX (female). If an ovum got fertilized with sperm with a Y chromosome, the result is XY (male).
Similarities Between Autosome And Sex Chromosome:
-Both contain DNA and protein.
-Located inside the genome of the nucleus.
-Both have genes.
-Determines the characteristics of the organism.
-Exist in pairs.
-Both segregate during the cell division.
-Are responsible for inheritance.
Comparison Between Autosome Vs Sex Chromosome:
-Autosome is used to determine characteristics.
-Sex chromosome is used to determine the sex of the organism.
-Autosomes are not involved in sex determination.
-Sex chromosome is involved in sex determination.
-Autosomes are homologous chromosomal pairs.
-Sex chromosomes are partial homologous chromosomal pairs.
-Autosomes have chromosomes of the same height.
-Sex chromosome has a Y chromosome smaller in size.
-There are 22 pairs of autosomes.
-There is 1 pair of sex chromosome.
featured image source: daily.jstor.org
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