Difference Between Chromosome And Chromatid. In this article, you will learn what is chromosome, what is chromatid, what is the main difference between chromosome and chromatid, and the comparison between chromosome and chromatid. The cell is the basic unit of living life. It contains various components that do their respective task. Chromosomes and chromatids are also parts of the cell. They both are involved in cell division. They have genes on them and contain all the genetic information.
Difference Between Chromosome And Chromatid:
There is no such big difference between both of them. The main difference between a chromosome and a chromatid is that a chromatid is a single unit and a chromosome is a complete unit. Various chromatids combine to form a chromosome.
What Is Chromosome:
A chromosome has all the genetic information of any organisms. A chromosome is only visible under a microscope when it is in the metaphase stage. They can be seen under a light microscope where all chromosomes are arranged on the metaphase plate. The number of chromosomes varies in every organism. Like human body has 46 chromosomes or 23 sets of chromosomes. All the genetic information is present in the chromosomes. The chromosomes are responsible for any defect and mutation of the genes. This will cause genetic disorders and disease due to mutation and defect in the chromosomes.
The chromosomes of prokaryotes are different from the chromosomes in the eukaryotes. In bacteria which is a prokaryote, it has a single circular chromosome. While in some bacteria there are also linear structured chromosomes. The chromosomes are made up of chromatin fibre in eukaryotes. And the chromatin fibre is further made up of nucleosomes that comprises the DNA and the histone proteins.
What Is Chromatid?
Many chromatids make a chromosome. Chromatids are the copies of chromosomes. When DNA replicates, there is the production of identical sister chromatids. And the chromosomes of the father and mother have the same genes but the alleles and traits of the genes are totally different.
When two chromatids are joined they form a chromosome. These chromatids are called sister chromatids and are joined at the centromere. The cohesion complex is formed by proteins. They help in cohesion. This cohesion of proteins is very important as it helps the chromosomes to get arranged in the metaphase plate and also their division of forming daughter cells.
During the time of mitosis, the sister chromatids are separated. These sister chromatids go to separate daughter cells. In metaphase, these chromatids are arranged on the metaphase plate. In the anaphase stage, they got separated and get attached to the different daughter cells. These incorporated chromatids are taken as the chromosome of daughter cells. After de-condensing again, they form a chromatin material in a cell. During the repair process of DNA, the sister chromatid exchanges the genetic material. During the time of meiosis, non-sister chromatids overlap and form the chiasmata.
Main Difference Between Chromosome And Chromatid:
-Chromosome is a complete unit, while chromatid is a single unit.
-Chromatid is one part of the chromosome, while the latter is always in pair.
-They both are an important part of the cell, as they contain the genetic material.
featured image source: www.clinicalomics.com
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