Possible Complications Of Diabetes. In this article, you will read the risk factors of diabetes in detail. Diabetes can have very significant consequences on the life and health of patients. Complications related to the disease can affect several organs indiscriminately (nerves, heart, arteries, eyes, feet, kidneys or teeth). Thus, in Western countries, diabetes is the leading cause of blindness. Fortunately, treatments exist and allow patients to live normally.
Possible Complications Of Diabetes:
Whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, your disease puts you at high risk for complications. Blood sugar imbalances harm your body and can create serious damage to cells, with repercussions on different organs.
There are two types of consequences:
The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetics gradually damages the small blood vessels of the kidneys and eyes as well as the nerves, thereby causing eye, nerve and kidney problems. The vessels become clogged and, if certain parts of our body are no longer sufficiently treated, they can die. The permanent excess of sugar in the blood, therefore, generates complications such as blindness, renal failure, and neuropathy (damage to the nerves) of the legs. It can cause “plantain perforating ailments” or even damage to the nerves that control sex.
Other parameters, such as blood sugar can impact the arteries and thus affect the carotid, coronary or leg arteries. The patient is at risk of stroke, heart attack or arthritis.
Risk Factors Of Diabetes In Detail:
Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure. The disease can alter the lining of the kidneys, causing renal permeability which can lead to the presence of albumins in the urine. It is called nephropathy. If left untreated, it will get worse, even leaking protein into the urine, which can eventually cause kidney failure.
Arterial And Cardiac Complications:
As we explained above, diabetes damages the arteries with particularly great risks for cardiovascular health. Especially, this disease is often associated with an excess of blood triglycerides, obesity, arterial hypertension or even a sedentary lifestyle with the consequent risk of atherosclerosis. Also, all the main blood vessels are affected. It is called macroangiopathy. The arteries supplying blood to the heart, legs or the brain of the patient are affected.
When the “large arteries” are affected (coronary arteries), the person is at risk of myocardial infarction. In the case of vascular involvement, macroangiopathy can lead to arthritis of the lower limbs. And, if it reaches the brain, it’s a stroke.
Among the chronic complications of diabetes are nerve problems. Indeed, the excess of sugar in the blood disturbs the nerves both in their function and in their structure.
The person becomes insensitive to heat, as well as to pain. This is called distal and symmetrical neuropathy. There is a risk of mononeuritis which can lead to facial paralysis or double vision. And, if the autonomic nervous system is affected, the person may experience digestive, bladder, and heart problems. Nerve damage is also the cause of complications in the feet and eyes.
Among the complications due to diabetes, eye damage is one of the best known. And for good reason, diabetic retinopathy affects nearly half of diabetics.
If the small blood vessels carrying blood to the retina are damaged, this can create micro-aneurysms which, if they burst, will swell the retina and create deposits of material, inducing visual disturbances. And, in the most severe cases, if scar tissue forms, the retina can detach and this will cause blindness.
Other major ophthalmological complications include cataracts and macular oedema.
The feet of diabetics are fragile, especially when they suffer from neuropathy. Poorly treated wounds or perforating plantar disease (chronic foot ulcer) can lead to abscesses or even gangrene, which requires amputation.
Bacteria “love” sugar. Therefore, diabetes promotes infections and people with it are more susceptible than average to skin, gynaecological and oral infections.
In addition to oral infections, diabetics can suffer from dry mouth, a side effect of many anti-diabetic drugs, which can lead to the appearance of lesions in the gums, fungus or even an ulcer in the mouth.
If these lesions do not heal well, in particular, because of the lack of oxygen arriving in the blood capillaries of the gums, periodontitis is guaranteed. Teeth can move or loosen, or there can be a risk of falling.
In addition to gynaecological infections, which are more numerous in people with diabetes, women are more prone to urinary tract infections, vaginal yeast infections and vaginal dryness. While men suffer much more frequently from erectile dysfunction. In most severe cases, a possible lack of muscle tone, the side effects of certain drugs, but especially diabetic neuropathy which reduces sensitivity, therefore low erection and desire.
Diabetes can be a cause of impaired sleep via:
-Nocturnal hypoglycaemia can cause nocturnal awakenings.
-Disease-induced polyuria (frequent urge to urinate).
-Restless legs syndrome, which can result from neuropathy.
-Diabetic retinopathy can lead to a disruption of the circadian rhythm.
-Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome, particularly affects people with diabetes.
Diabetes is a heavy and restrictive pathology on a daily basis. Especially since, if the disease can be treated, it cannot be cured. People with diabetes are therefore more affected than average by psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety or even nervousness and fatigue.
Less known than the others, joint complications are common in people with diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia alters collagen, a protein molecule contributing to joint well-being. Among the most common disorders are diabetic cheiroarthropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupuytren’s disease, trigger finger and tendonitis. Other complications are also possible, such as shoulder-hand syndrome and gout attack.
The acute complications of type 1 diabetes are sometimes malaise or comas due to hyperglycemia and more rarely due to ketoacidosis. It can be due to insulin not being injected or incorrectly dosed.
-Ketoacidosis occurs when the body can no longer use glucose as fuel at all (sugar no longer enters the cells due to the absence of insulin). The cells then attack the fats, causing their abnormally massive degradation into ketone bodies, which is a toxic waste for the body. If untreated, ketoacidosis progresses to coma and death.
-Hypoglycaemia, by far the most common accident, can cause only slight discomfort, but if left untreated, it can also lead to coma with irreversible neurological sequelae.
-Hyperosmolar coma, a rare accident, occurs especially in subjects over 60 years of age following severe dehydration during infections, diarrhoea or taking diuretics. Blood sugar is then very high and immediate hospitalization is needed. Mortality is heavy (50% of cases) and occurs through a sudden drop in blood pressure.
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